Qatar is to buy 50 Airbus a321neo planes with an option for a further 30.
The deal was one of several announced on Thursday during a state visit to Qatar by French President Emmanuel Macron.
Qatar also said it would buy 12 French-built Rafale fighter jets.
It comes as the emirate remains under a trade and diplomatic boycott by neighbouring countries.
Also announced was the award of a contract to a French rail consortium to build and operate the metro in the Qatari capital Doha, and the purchase of 490 armoured vehicles from defence firm Nexter.
Mr Macron said the contracts signed with Qatar were worth a total €12bn.
Airbus, headquartered in France, employs 6,000 people at its wing assembly plant in Broughton, north Wales, and also has a production site in Bristol.
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Last month it announced its biggest ever deal, when it signed a memorandum of understanding to sell 430 jets to Indigo Partners, the company behind four airlines, including Hungary's WizzAir.
That deal had a headline price of $49.5bn and was seen as helping it catch up after recently lagging behind US rival Boeing.
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